Vitamin A is a component of the visual pigment rhodopsin and is a protective substance for the entire ectoderm. It is involved as a coenzyme in the synthesis of glycoproteins, which is a prerequisite for the integrity of epithelial tissues (skin, mucous membranes of the respiration, digestion and genitourinary tract, cornea of the eye). The involvement of vitamin A in protein metabolism is considered safe, as both high-protein dietand states of increased protein requirements (pregnancy, disease, stress) lead to vitamin A deficiency. ß-carotene and vitamin A are effective antioxidants that intercept free radicals and thus protect the cells from oxidation (protection against harmful environmental influences, strengthening of the body’s own defences, protection against cancer). ß-carotene is the precursor of vitamin A and, unlike this, also non-toxic in megadoses. Vitamin A overdoses usually indicate headaches and nausea, but the toxic doses vary widely, as are the toxic effects that can be canceled by vitamin C.
The first symptoms of vitamin A deficiency concern disturbances of night and twilight vision, and later a failure of the epithelial protection function occurs, which manifests itself in the keratinization of the comea, the skin and mucous membranes, which increases the susceptibility to microorganisms.
Normally 10,000 – 25,000 I.E. vitamin A ( 5,000 I.E. RDA) bp. 15 mg ß-carotene / day ( 1 I.E. = 0.3 micrograms Vit.A or 0.6 micrograms ß-carotene).
- Cell protection, cancer prevention: The antioxidant effect intercepts free radicals. Free radicals (see also part A.2.1 “vitamins”) can, among other things, change the hereditary substance. A misguided cell division program results in malignant tumors (carcinomas), which tend to form daughter tumors (metastases) by transporting tumor cells along the blood or lymph apathy.
- Cancer therapy: Cancer patients have extremely low vitamin A levels. Since vitamin A (ß-carotene) has cytostatic effects in high doses, it is used in addition to support radiotherapy (sometimes up to 3 million I.E. daily for several months)
- Acne: a summary description of the diseases or inflammations of the sebaceous glands associated with nodule and pustule formation. 30,000 – 100,000 I.E. daily, possibly in combination with zinc oxide, over 10 – 12 weeks.
- Keratosis follicularis: A cornification disorder of the skin, with horn pastes outstanding from the hair follicle mouths. This skin disease can be treated with 100,000 I.E. vitamin A in combination with vitamin E (1,600 I.E.). Other, even hereditary skin diseases, such as ichthyosis, also respond well to vitamin A.
- Cold: if it is due to acute vitamin A deficiency (in case of strong sunlight at the sea or in the snow, due to reflection of radiation, particularly a lot of rhodopsin is consumed and the resulting vitamin A deficiency makes the mucous membranes susceptible to germs.
- Epithelial protection: Since the normal structure of the epithelial tissues (skin, mucous membranes) is vitamin A-dependent, its use is also successful in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, lungs, burns and traumas of all kinds, allergies to the regeneration of skin and mucous membranes, liver diseases (e.g. alcoholism, drug abusus, drug addiction) for the regeneration of the liver parenchyma and in the atherosclerosis prophylaxis to protect the endothelia, because no anomalous plaques can form in intact blood vessel walls cholesterol, calcium deposits). In addition, epithelial protection also means protection against infections.
- Infection prevention: High-dose vitamin A or ß-carotene causes immune stimulation by influencing macrophage and lymphocyte function.
- Pregnancy: In the first three months no more than 8,000 I.E., since a teratogenic effect cannot be excluded, then 25,000 I.E., during breastfeeding 50,000 I.E.
- Night blindness
rheumatic complaints or existing arthrosis. High doses of vitamin A can induce this joint disease.
The two most important representatives of D vitamins are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D2 is produced by UV irradiation from the vegetable ergosterin. Vitamin D3 is a natural component of animal tissue and is formed by sunlight irradiation in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol. As a supplement, therefore, only vitamin D3 is possible. Since cholesterol can be synthesized by humans and mammals, vitamin D deficiency can only be the result of a lack of sun exposure (typical follow-up disease of rickets) or a disruption of the conversion of the provitamin into the vitamin.
Vitamin D is only essential for vertebrates. It promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, and the resulting increase in plasma levels supports bone growth and ossification.
Normally 400 I.E. /day ( 1 I.E.=0.025 micrograms vitamin D3).
- Rachitis: With a reduction in calcium absorption from the intestine, a lime mobilization from the skeleton is caused by counter-regulation of the parathyroid gland, which results in skeletal deformations. Additional vitamin D3 gifts are recommended for prophylaxis in children and adolescents as well as in adults with insufficient sun exposure and during pregnancy.
- Rheumatic diseases: In primary degenerative (arthrosis) and primarily inflammatory (arthritis) joint diseases to support compensatory subchondral bone formation. 500 I.E. daily in combination with 4 g of vitamin C and 1 g of calcium.
Vitamin E is the collective name for various tocopherols found in many plant-based foods, which are characterized by their effects as antioxidants. Alpha-tocopherol is the most effective. It protects unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation to peroxides, various vitamins (e.g. vitamin A), enzymes and hormones from the action of oxidants, as well as cells and tissues from the attack of free radicals by protecting the phospholipids of the biomembranes from peroxidation. The influence of vitamin E on platelets is expressed in an inhibition of platelet aggregation. Vitamin E also seems to stimulate antibody production, along with selenium.
Normally 200 – 400 I.E. (1 I.E. = 1 mg alpha- tocopherol), in arterial occlusion diseases up to 1 200 I.E. / day.
- Cardiovascular Diseases: Due to the antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects suitable for prophylaxis and therapy. For example, in angina pectoris (acute coronar insufficiency with sudden onset of chest pain caused by a mismatch between oxygen supply and need, a consequence of arteriosclerotically altered vessels) a high vitamin E plasma level correlates with a low risk of disease. In addition, the interception of free radicals prevents damage to the endothelia, and thus the deposits in the vessel walls (arteriosclerosis). The same applies to vitamin C and ß-carotene.
- Activated osteoarthritis (an inflammatory component has been added to the primary degenerative joint disease, advanced osteoarthritis) and arthritis: Vitamin E intercepts free sow-off radicals, which increasingly form the leukocytes in rheumatic joints. It protects the cell membranes by storing themselves in them due to its fat-soluble properties.
- Muscle and connective tissue diseases: e.g. muscular dystrophy (chronic degenerative disease that primarily affects the skeletal muscles), Dupuytren’s contracture (atrophy of the connective tissue of the palms) are favorably influenced.
- Protection against environmental toxins, cell protection: Due to its antioxidant effect, vitamin E provides protection against pollutants in the air, food and beverages, which are often causes of premature aging and cancer, as they increasingly produce free radicals.
- Infection defense: With a moderately increased intake of vitamin E and selenium, the production of antibodies increases.
- Heavy metal intoxications: especially for lead and mercury poisoning.
- Dysmenorrhea (menstrual discomfort)
- Menopause complaints (complaints during menopause)
- Nocturnal leg cramps: improve when administration of vitamin E in combination with calcium and magnesium.
- Avoidance of keloid formation. Topical use for burns and after skin cuts can prevent the formation of bead scars.
Diabetes mellitus: A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, either due to insulin deficiency or decreased insulin effect. The disease is coined with high blood lipid levels, which in turn promote the development of atherosclerosis, and with neurological symptoms. Treatment with insulin is also an example of orthomolecular therapy, as insulin is a body-owned substance. Vitamin E reduces insulin requirements (300-800I. E.)
Vitamin K is present in green plants as phyllochinone, in bacteria and animal organisms as menachinone. As such, it is also sufficiently produced by the gut bacteria. Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin and other blood clotting factors.
- Pregnancy: in the last weeks and especially in the case of contractions.
- Months of antibiotic treatment: By destroying the intestinal flora, vitamin K-gifts can be indicated.
Ascorbic acid is synthesized from D-glucose by higher plants and animals. However, primates (humans, great apes), guinea pigs, elephants and some bird species are not capable of ascorbic acid synthesis because they lack an important enzyme (L-gulonolactone oxidase). In mammals, ascorbic acid is produced in the liver, birds, reptiles and amphibians in the kidney. Vitamin C has a highly reducing effect and is therefore an effective radical scavengers as an antioxidant, but is very sensitive to atmospheric oxygen and heating. As a coenzyme, it has a key position in the biosynthesis of collagen, therefore the symptoms of scurvy consist in disorders of collagen metabolism (cracked skin, tendency to bleeding, changes in bone structure, tooth loss). Ascorbic acid exerts a protective effect on many vitamins, it promotes iron absorption in the small intestine and is involved in many dioxygenase (e.g. collagen synthesis) and hydroxylation reactions (e.g. formation of glucocorticoids in the adrenal cortex). It strengthens the immune system against bacterial and viral infections by boosting the production of antibodies and the body’s own interferon synthesis (interferons are glycoproteins that have cytostatic properties and protect the body’s cells from viruses) and influence the function of lymphocytes (Linus Pauling’s vitamin program).
Normally 4 – 12 g = 1 – 3 teaspoons (75 mg RDA), the need depends on the limit of intestinal tolerance, i.e. the individual dose is just below the amount that exerts a laxative effect (Cathcart 1984). In special cases, up to 200 g / day are administered depending on intestinal compatibility, spread over several doses. In the case of serious diseases, the limit of intestinal tolerance automatically increases.
- Wound healing: By the participation of vitamin C in collagen synthesis, a faster wound healing after burns, injuries, operations, but also in skin diseases (dermatoses) can be observed by giving high ascorbic acid doses (25 – 150 g / day).
- Infection prevention: Due to the influence on antibody production, the body’s interferon and cortisone synthesis and the activity of lymphocytes, vitamin C is not only suitable for the treatment and prophylaxis of the common cold and flu. Almost all bacterial and viral infections, even the most severe viral infections such as hepatitis and pneumonia, can be positively influenced by vitamin C.
- Poisoning: Hydroxylation binds and excretes toxins such as heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, nicotine, etc. This also explains the successes in the treatment of drug addicts.
- Cell protection; Cancer prevention: As an antioxidant, vitamin C intercepts free radicals.
- Cancer therapy: Metastasis can be prevented by high vitamin C doses.
- Osteoarthritis (primarily degenerative disease of the hyaline articular cartilage) and arthritis (primary inflammatory disease of the joint capsule, which subsequently leads to the destruction of the articular cartilage: Due to the influence on collagen synthesis, cartilage contains 70 – 80 % collagen, osteoarthritis in the initial stage can be positively influenced by high ascorbic acid doses. Vitamin C megadoses (10 – 25 g / day) are also successfully used in the treatment of arthritis (in the more advanced stage of joint diseases vitamin C treatment in combination with calcium and vitamin D3, see “Calciferol”).
- Sedation: Vitamin C has an anxiolytic and calming effect.
- Cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis prophylaxis: A high plasma level reduces the risk of developing, because vitamin C protects the endothelium from the attack of free radicals on the one hand and increases the HDL (High Densityproteins Lipo) in the blood, which transports the cholesterol from the blood to the liver, where it is broken down, so that deposition in the arterial walls is prevented.
- Allergies: Histamine, the biogenic amine of the amino acid histidine, is released into the tissue when in contact with the allergenic substance (allergen) and antibody from special cells and is responsible for the symptoms of allergies, such as asthma, skin redness, itching, anaphylactic shock (allergy shock). By hydroxylation, the histamine is eliminated from the ascorbic acid.
Vitamin B1 is a coenzyme involved in many carbohydrate and fat metabolism reactions, e.g. the development of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the vegetative nervous system and neuromuscular synapses. For example, the neurological failure diseases of vitamin B1 deficiency can be explained (e.g. Beriberi).
Normally 1.5 – 5 mg / day
- Beriberi: Typical vitamin B1 deficiency disease, especially in East Asian countries, which causes nerve inflammation and paralysis as well as heart failure.
- Neuropathy (diseases of the nerves)
- Neuralgia (on-the-side nerve pain without inflammatory changes)
- Depression (mental upset, depression)
- Alcohol polyneuritis: vitamin B1 caused by reduced absorption due to reduced absorption and usually B2 deficiency, which manifests itself in motor and sensitive paralysis. The daily vitamin B1 doses should be 20 – 30 mg.
- Multiple sclerosis (degeneration of myelin sheaths of the nerves): Thiamine treatment brings success, because a lack of vitamin B1 causes degeneration of peripheral nerves.
- Diabetes mellitus: to prevent diabetes neuropathy.
Vitamin B2 is produced in plants and microorganisms. It is coenzyme of important enzymes in the respiratory chain (flavo proteins) and is therefore particularly abundant in cells with high metabolism. The high riboflavin content in the retina suggests a participation in the visual process. In case of deficiency symptoms, inflammation occurs on the mucous membranes of the mouth and digestive tract, on the skin to scale, inflammation and rhagaden formation and on the eyes to inflammation of the cornea and lens opacity.
Normally 1.5 – 5 mg / day
- Dermatoses on skin and mucous membranes, otherwise usually administered in combination with other B vitamins or within the framework of the B-complex
Mammals and the majority of plants and bacteria can synthesize niacin from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is the collective name for nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid amide, which play a key role in the respiratory chain as constituents of important coenzymes (NADP). The niacin can also be administered in the form of its amide (niacinamide), in the event of any side effect, an increase in histamine levels, which can lead to short-term redness and tingling in disposed individuals. Nicotinic acid works in high doses (100 – 300 mg / day) vasodilatatory and it inhibits the cholesterol thesis (0.5 – 1 g / day).
15 – 500 mg depending on the protein content of the food. 75 g of protein, if tryptophan is present, approximately 15 mg of niacin.
- Pellagra: PP = Pellagra Preventing. The typical niacin deficiency disease, although the clinical picture is usually superimposed by multiple B deficiency, initially leads to skin and mucosal changes and in the final stage to debilitation (weakness). Responsible for the disorders of the central nervous system is that the conversion of norepinephrine into adrenaline is dependent on the same methyl group donor (adenosylmethionine) as the conversion of nicotinamide into the water-soluble methylnicotinamide, which came excreted via the kidneys. If nicotinamide is missing, adrenaline is produced more and more, so that norepinephrine deficiency arises. Norepinephrine is an important transmitter in the central and vegetative (sympathetic) nervous system. If niacin is offered in megadoses, the conversion of norepinephrine into adrenaline is blocked. Niacin therapy also shows success in other neurological problems (b. – e.).
- Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is an endogenous psychosis with an unknown genesis, which involves a mental split in the sense of coexistence and coexistence of healthy and pathological sensations and behaviors. Treatment with megadoses came to bring success.
- Learning disabilities
- peripheral circulatory disorders (low blood circulation, particularly of the extremities): Nicotinic acid has a vasodilatatory effect in high doses, i.e. also an antihypertensive effect. The vasodilator effect only occurred in non-arteriographically altered vascular sections, where the vessel walls are still elastic.
- Dermatoses on the skin and mucous membranes: chances of healing by promoting blood circulation and activating cell respiration.
- Hyperlipidemia: High levels of niacin (not niacinamide) reduce blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, thus reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.
- Alcoholism: Alcoholics show deficiencies in almost all B vitamins, which promotes neurological failures. However, the effect of niacin or nicotinamide is a special one: alcohol inhibits an enzyme in the brain that requires nicotinamide as a coenzyme to work and which normally causes the breakdown of certain aldehydes. If this enzyme is inhibited by alcohol, there is an accumulation of these aldehydes, which can further react to morphine-like alkaloids. A kind of body’s addictive drug synthesis takes place, which was triggered by alcohol. By megadoses nicotinamide (2 – 3 g / day) the inhibition of the enzyme can be counteracted and the formation of endogenous addictive toxins can be prevented.
- Arthritis: 3 X 1 g niacin + 2 X 2000 I.E. vitamin D3 + several g of vitamin C daily.
Patients with high uric acid levels, as niacin can promote uric acid deposits, e.g. in the joints (gout).
Pantothenic acid is synthesized by plants and microorganisms and is involved in the development of coenzyme A, which plays an important role in the breakdown of glucose and fatty acids in the citrate cycle, but also in the synthesis of steroid hormones (e.g. cortisone). Due to the widespread presence of pantothenic acid in the food and the formation of the vitamin by the intestinal intestinal flora, deficiency symptoms rarely occur.
Normally 20 – 50 mg / day (8 mg RDA)
- Hyperlipidemia: With daily ishisi,1 g, cholesterol and triglyceride levels are significantly lowered and HDL levels in the blood are increased.
- Ulcerative colitis (a non-specific, usually chronically recurrent inflammatory disease of the intestine): The effect may be due to enzyme induction, the stimulation of an enzyme by high doses of a particular building block. In this disease, a coenzyme A deficiency is said to be present, with normal pantothenic acid concentration in the intestine. High doses of the vitamin seem to stimulate coenzyme A synthesis. Perhaps the formation of coenzyme A is blocked at normal levels of pantothenic acid.
- Lupus erythematosus: name for a severe, prognostically unfavourable disease of vascular connective tissue, an autoimmune disease with antibodies against DNA. 10 – 15 g(!) Calcium pantothenate + 1 – 2000 mg vitamin E. Here, too, an enzyme induction may be responsible for the success of the treatment.
- Alcoholism: see “Niacin”
- Allergies: Cortisone is an important therapeutic agent for severe allergic reactions because it has not only anti-inflammatory but also vascular wall stabilizing properties, thereby attenuating the effects of histamine. Pantothenic acid is involved in the formation of the body’s own cortisons.
- Anti-infection: Pantothenic acid could have an influence on antibody production. At least in animal experiments, there has been a decrease in antibody production in the case of artificially produced pantothenic acid deficiency.
Pyridoxine is formed by many microorganisms and plants. It occurs as pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, which can be transferred into each other and whose common form of action is the pyridoxal-5-phosphate, which is formed in an ATP-dependent phosphorylation reaction. This is involved as a coenzyme in the formation of many enzymes, e.g. in amino acid metabolism, in the metabolism of the central nervous system, in the synthesis of lecithin, which plays an important role in atherosclerosis prophylaxis, and in the synthesis of the heem, the part of the red blood dye that complexly binds iron. Pyridoxine is essential for nucleic acid and protein biosynthesis as well as cell division. Thus, its fundamental importance for the function of the immune system is to be explained.
Normally 50 mg, for therapy up to 500 mg / day (1.8 mg RDA)
- Learning disorders, lack of concentration, hyperactivity: The causes may be explained by the reduced activity of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent glutamate decarboxylase and the reduced concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the brain. Glutamate decarboxylase decarboxylates glutamic acid (glutamate) into gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is an important inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system. A deficiency leads, among other things, to increased excitability of the nerves, which is the main cause of concentration disorders. Treatment successes are achieved with doses up to 500 mg. Deficiencies in gamma-aminobutyric acid may also be present in the following indications.
- Nightmares and missing dream memories
- Sleep disturbances, restlessness
- Travel, seasickness
- Pregnancy vomiting
- Dementia (acquired, due to organic brain damage, permanent mental weakness)
- Epilepsy and epileptic seizures in infants: designation of a group of hereditary, traumatic or organic diseases whose characteristic signs are cerebral seizures, unconsciousness, foam in front of the mouth.
- Neurites (nerve inflammation): e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome, damage to the endast of the median nerve in the area of the hand root bones, which is caused by pressure effect of the pathologically increased connective tissue in the area.
- Infection defense: Vitamin B6 supports the function of the immune system in both cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
- Taking the anti-baby pill: The increased excretion of xanthurenic acid (an evasive reaction in tryptophan metabolism when pyridoxal phosphate is missing) indicates a lack of pyridoxine when taking the pill.
- Anemia (blood poverty): If the causes are to be found in a disorder of heme synthesis, microcytic hypochromic anemia arises, in which the erythrocytes are small and pale. The same clinical picture results in iron deficiency and iron absorption disorders.
- Rheumatoid diseases (arthrosis and arthritis): In addition to pyridoxine, almost all vitamins of the B complex are used.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Alcoholism: see “Niacin”.
- Hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis prophylaxis: Lecithin synthesis is vitamin B6-dependent. Lecithin is able to bind blood cholesterol and thus avoid deposits in the vessel walls (see also “Choline”).
Folic acid is synthesized by most microorganisms, including some types of gut bacteria. The biologically active form of folic acid is tetrahydrofolic acid (= coenzyme F), which is produced by an enzymatic reaction of pteridine, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic acid residues. Tetrahydrofolic acid is involved in the enzymatic activation of single carbon units (e.g. CH3groups), in their conversion and transmission and thus in central biosynthesis processes, e.g. in the synthesis of purine bodies and thyme (components of DNA). Thus, the fundamental role for growth and division of cells can be explained.
Normally 1 mg, in special cases up to 10 mg /day (400 micrograms RDA)
- Megaloblastic anemia: A disorder of erythrocyte formation in which less, but particularly large erythrocytes are produced. Because of their high mitoserates, the cellular elements of the blood are affected by folic acid deficiency very early on.
- Leukopenia, thrombopenia (reduction of leukocyte and platelet counts)
- Sulfonamide, antibiotic intake: Antibiotics also destroy folic acid-forming intestinal bacteria. Sulfonamides inhibit folic acid synthesis of intestinal bacteria.
- Irritability, forgetfulness, depression: they can be symptoms of a creeping folic acid deficiency.
- Pregnancy: Due to the growth processes of the embryo, folic acid deficiency is very common in pregnant women.
- nocturnal leg cramps
- Gout (joint inflammation due to deposition of rendered salts in the joints): 3 X 5 – 10 mg folic acid + 3 X 1 – 2 g of vitamin C daily brought success in some cases.
- Strengthening the immune system: Together with vitamin B12, folic acid is effective in the fight against infection because it is involved in the formation of the immune cells (lymphocytes).
Cobalamin consists of 4 pyrrol rings with a central cobalt atom. Biosynthesis can be carried out by bacteria, but not by higher plants and animals. The absorption of cobalamin from the intestinal tract is linked to the presence of the “intrinsic factor” produced in the gastric mucosa. Cobalamin and folic acid complement each other in their effect as coenzymes in the injection of carbon units into the metabolism. Up to 1 mg of vitamin B12 can be stored in the liver.
Normally 10 micrograms, in therapy up to 1OOO micrograms / day (5 micrograms RDA)
- Pernicious anemia: is caused by lack of cobalamin resorption (missing intrinsic factor). Cobalamin-dependent erythrocyte maturation is disturbed.
- Forgetfulness, fatigue, depression
- Taking the contraceptive pill: It came to lower the cobalamin content in the blood.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Alcoholism: see “Niacin”
Strengthening the immune system: see “folic acid”
Pangamic acid (gluconic acid 6-0-dimethylaminacecacid) increases the use of oxygen in the cells and can therefore often be quite effective in diseases such as rheumatism, angina pectoris and migraines.
Normally 5 mg, in therapy up to 150 mg / day
Biotin is synthesized in many microorganisms and plants. It is involved as a coenzyme in transcarboxylation reactions, i.e. in the generation of energy in the cells. A deficiency is rare because the intestinal flora produces enough biotin. Due to the widespread occurrence, the daily needs are also met by food.
150 – 200 micrograms / day
Usually administered only within the framework of the B-complex.